The STINKWORT (Dittrichia graveolens) is your BEST FRIEND, depending on what side of the California grassland fence you are onóAre you maintaining exotic grasses for hay and grazing or are you restoring native bunchgrasses and wildflowers?
Copyright © 2013 by Craig Dremann, The Reveg Edge, Box 361, Redwood City, CA 94064 (650) 325-7333
The Stinkwort was first noted in California in Santa Clara County less than 30 years ago. The infestations on the San Francisco peninsula are mainly spreading along the roadsides, and in 2013, this new weed is not being controlled by any road management agencies, like County road crews or Caltrans.
Now that this new weed has spread to infest more than half of California's counties, government agencies are starting to pay attention, especially since it is showing up in the Napa County vineyards and there are concerns that the plant might give an off-flavor to the wines.
Also there are concerns about the plant going into the rangelands of the State, and injuring stock. BLM on their web site has issued the following notice:
Warning! Touching stinkwort can cause dermatitis, itchy skin, or blistering. Grazers that eat this plant can produce tainted milk or meat. When the seeds are ingested by grazing animals they can cause inflammation of the small intestine, and can lead to pulpy kidney disease or sudden death.
Stinkwort is a California native tarweed mimic, in that it has sticky stems and grows and flowers in the summer, after the annual weed grasses have died for the year. The original tarweeds could be called ìexotic grazing animal antibodiesî in that they interfere with exotic animal grazing in California, and did not allow the animals to graze the land to barren dust.
After 1865 when the perennial native grasslands were largely grazed to dust during the two year drought (William H. Brewer's accounts), then the non-palatable plants like the tarweeds flourished in California between the 1870s to the 1920s.
Photos taken by Frederick Clements when he worked at Stanford in the 1920s show how densely the tarweed grew in California grasslands, and ranchers have worked diligently to exterminate the native tarweeds from rangelands. Tarweeds were probably largely wiped out after the invention of herbicides in the 1950s, so by the 1970s were absent from most of California grasslands.
Now, a new exotic tarweed mimic recently arrived, spreading quickly to fill the ecological niche left by the essentially extinct native tarweeds. Stinkwort puts a spotlight on the last 200 years of grassland management in California.
When the original California native grassland was exterminated, it included many tarweed species, and the Europeans and Americans were hoping to cherry-pick the useful-to-humans-and-our-introduced-livestock exotic grass species that we could replace the native bunchgrasses and wildflowers with.
However, an ecological rule is, in exterminate an entire native grassland ecosystem and convert it into an exotic plant biome, to have only the desirable wild oats without the medusa head grass, and yellow star thistle. You cannot have the desirable filaree without the cheatgrass, and Saharan mustard.
So the battle begins for the empty tarweed ecological niche in California. If you are still using lands originally occupied by the bunchgrasses for planting exotic plants, or using bunchgrass lands converted-to-exotic grasses for grazing or hay, expect to budget billions of dollars to keep Stinkwort from filling that niche.
Stinkwort's almost magnetic attraction to the open tarweed niche, plus the seed pappus allowing it to blow in the wind, will help this plant to eventually become perhaps one of the most hated weeds in the State or in the West.
However, if your job includes ecological
restoration of the native bunchgrasses and wildflower fields,
then this new weed can become your teacher. Stinkwort can be used
to indicate wherever it grow, that you still have some more work
to do on that spot of land, to fill in all of the proper native
grassland niches and puzzle pieces.
Updated October 27, 2013