NATIVE PLANTS FOR ROADSIDES AND MITIGATION
Training sessions conducted March - November 2000 for CALTRANS by
The Reveg Edge, Box 609, Redwood City, CA 94064 (650) 325-7333
email craig@ecoseeds.com

THE 228 TOPICS FROM THE TRAINING SESSIONS
REQUESTED BY THE PARTICIPANTS, ARRANGED BY CATEGORY

Copyright © 2000 by Craig Dremann

1. AESTHETICS - Aesthetically pleasing natives?
2. AESTHETICS - What natives are the most attractive and how to use?
3. ALLELOPATHY - Allelopathy?
4. ANNUAL NATIVES - What do we do with annuals ? Can they be reseed themselves, or must we reseed ?
5. APPLICATION - Application methods. Who does it? How?
6. APPLICATION - Methods for applying seed/revegetating steep slopes?
7. APPLICATION - Site preparation?
8. APPLICATION - Specification requirements?
9. APPLICATION - Various techniques for planting(drilling, hydroseeding...etc.)?
10. ASSOCIATIONS - Successful native plant associations (direct seeding)?
11. AVAILABILITY - Availability of container plants and seed?
12. AVAILABILITY - How can we get better availability of native material for projects?
13. AVAILABILITY - Which natives are available?
14. BENEFITS - Benefits of natives versus ornamentals?
15. BULK SEED - How do you get local seed in bulk, other than hand harvesting from wild stands?
16. CLIMATE - Minimum/maximum climatic, soil... etc.?
17. CLIMATE ZONES - What fescue (or other grass) can be used for what climate (coast, etc.)?
18. CLIMATE ZONES - What natives work best by climate type, etc.?
19. COASTAL SAGE - Are there native species that could revegetate and stabilize the eroding sandstone roadcuts along the Toll Roads and not create more CSS habitat?
20. COASTAL SAGE - Can you direct seed Coastal Sage Scrub?
21. COASTAL SAGE - Coastal sage scrub (CSS) habitat restoration?
22. COASTAL SAGE - Coastal Scrub "cut slope" restoration?
23. COASTAL SAGE - CSS "cut slope" restoration?
24. COASTAL SAGE - Suggestions of successful native species in coastal sage scrub?
25. COLLECTION - Collection from project sites if project lead time is sufficient?
26. COLLECTION - Methods and timing of seed collection and storage information of viable seed?
27. COMPETITION - Natives in the above environments that are most successful at out competing exotics during the establishment period (and beyond)?
28. CONTAINER STOCK - Use of container stock vs. hydroseeding in restoration
29. COSTS - Cost effectiveness using natives (long-term success of good natives)?
30. COSTS - Costs of natives?
31. COSTS - How much money can Caltrans save using native vegetation not dependent on irrigation?
32. COSTS - What are comparative costs ? Especially the long term maintenance costs ?
33. COSTS - What is the cost analysis of planting out container stock vs. hydroseeding?
34. DESERT NATIVES - In the desert, should we just leave the area alone if we don't disturb the roots of the plants, to let them come back on their own, or do we have to do some seeding?
35. DESERT REVEG - Planning considerations in semi-arid and arid landscapes?
36. DESERT SPECIES - What desert natives could be used around desert Roadside Rest Areas?
37. DESERT SPECIES - What is the best seed mix for upper and lower desert areas?
38. DESERT TRANSPLANTING - Can Joshua trees, Mojave yuccas, and other large perennials be successfully transplanted?
39. DROUGHT-RESISTANT - Drought resistant native plants?
40. ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION - How do we measure critical ecological function/success criteria?
41. EROSION - Ability of various natives to control erosion?
42. EROSION CONTROL - Absent a mandate, which is more important: erosion control or native revegetation?
43. EROSION CONTROL - Controlling erosion until natives do establish?
44. EROSION CONTROL - Erosion Control and Revegetation? How/what/which can we expect to do well?
45. EROSION CONTROL - Erosion Control vs. Revegetation?
46. EROSION CONTROL - Establishing native cover sufficient to provide erosion control
47. EROSION CONTROL - Revegetation/erosion control strategies for short (2 month) projects?
48. EROSION CONTROL - Strategies revegetating while assuring first winter erosion control?
49. EROSION CONTROL - Will native grasses control erosion well?
50. ESTABLISHMENT - And what to do in the mean time while we are waiting to get good bunchgrass cover?
51. ESTABLISHMENT - Are there any non-natives that don't reproduce that could hold things in place while the natives are getting established?
52. ESTABLISHMENT - Establishing natives on disturbed soils?
53. ESTABLISHMENT - Establishment period?
54. ESTABLISHMENT - How long does it take to get a good bunch grass cover?
55. ESTABLISHMENT - Once grass seeds planted, what need be done to get them established?
56. ESTABLISHMENT - Plant establishment regimes - mowing, de-thatching, etc.?
57. ESTABLISHMENT - Practices to enhance establishment and maintenance of natives?
58. ESTABLISHMENT - Roadsides are harsh, disturbed, often compacted environs. How do you establish natives in these conditions?
59. ESTABLISHMENT -What's the best step-my-step method to get natives established?
60. EVALUATIONS - What are good indicator species to evaluate a restoration site (invertebrates, plants, other animals, etc.)?
61. EXAMPLES - Do you have sources for excellent "before" and "after" native landscaping ?
62. EXOTICS - Are non-natives ever appropriate (when?)?
63. EXOTICS - Are non-natives from Arizona, Nevada, etc. BETTER THAN overseas aliens.
64. EXOTICS - Are some alien species now considered better than recent aliens (i.e. fountain grass)
65. EXOTICS - Can you get rid of Yellow star thistle without burning or herbicides, with only a change in maintenance practices?
66. EXOTICS - Control of invasive species at mitigation sites after grading?
67. EXOTICS - French broom - how to remove it and replant where it has been?
68. EXOTICS - How will introduced native species affect the surrounding plant community?
69. EXOTICS - Is there a compromise between native - non-native ? Come on tell the truth.
70. EXOTICS - Reducing the non-native seed bank from the planting area
71. EXOTICS - What's wrong with non-native wildflowers?
72. FERTILIZER - Compost vs synthetic fertilizer on grass/wildflower establishment?
73. FERTILIZER - Planting without fertilizer?
74. FERTILIZER --artificial vs natural? Advantages/ disadvantages?
75. FERTILIZERS - Organic vs. inorganic?
76. FIRE - Fire control required of Maintenance and how it relates to CT native habitat areas?
77. FIRE-RESISTANT - Fire resistant natives?
78. FLAMMABILITY - Low liability natives...easy to keep alive and not highly flammable?
79. FOOD PLANTS - Don't plant tasty (to deer) natives in the median of the road?
80. FOOD PLANTS - Should roadside planting not include foods plants of the Mojave ground squirrel or the Desert tortoise food plants, so that they are not attracted or brought close to the road?
81. FOOD PLANTS LIST - Is there a list of Mojave Ground squirrel and Desert Tortoise food plants that could be made available to Caltrans, so that those species don't accidentally get planted along the roadsides?
82. FORBS & SHRUBS - Use of forbs and shrubs combined with grass? How many seeds per sq. ft.?
83. FREEZING - Freeze resistant natives?
84. GENETICS - Gene pool-should it be local stock?
85. GOAL - What is a realistic goal for percent cover for different native plant communities? CSS, Riparian, etc.
86. GOALS - What is short and long term goals when using California natives?
87. GROUND COVER - Which native ground covers do you recommend (to replace ice plant and ivy)?
88. HABITAT - Detailed explanation of why landscape maintenance is not habitat creation?
89. HARDINESS - What natives tend to be hardier and can tolerate a Right of Way environment?
90. HERBICIDES - Are herbicides useful/necessary to establish native grasses and forbs?
91. HERBICIDES - Can natives be established and maintained without herbicides?
92. HERBICIDES - Seed germination with and without herbicides?
93. HYDROSEED - "Duff" vs. hydroseeding? Which is best for erosion control vs. reveg.?
94. HYDROSEEDING - How much damage do you do? How to get a uniform seeding?
95. HYDROSEEDING - Hydroseeding?
96. HYDROSEEDING - Is it cost effective to hydroseed non irrigated mixtures during summer months?
97. HYDROSEEDING - Is it possible to re-establish vanished native species plants by hydroseed in roadside cuts and fills?
98. HYDROSEEDING - Re-establishment of native plants by hydroseed in road cuts?
99. HYDROSEEDING - What are the advantages for using Pure Live Seed as opposed to bulk seeds in non irrigated hydroseed mixtures?
100. HYDROSEEDING - What is the best application method of hydroseeding slopes steeper than 2:1
101. HYDROSEEDING - Would hydroseeding be useful for control of exotics?
102. INVASIVE - Non-invasive natives?
103. IRRIGATION - How do you establish natives without permanent irrigation?
104. IRRIGATION - Irrigation duration needed for different natives?
105. IRRIGATION - Planting without irrigation?
106. IRRIGATION - Should include some irrigation?
107. IRRIGATION - Where best can we use non-irrigated plantings?
108. LOCAL ECOTYPES - Must we really use seeds from our immediate area ?
109. LOCAL ECOTYPES - Will locally adapted varieties be used or available?
110. LOCALLY COLLECTED SEED - How do you get locally collected seed for projects?
111. LOW GROWING - Low growth height natives?
112. LOW GROWING. - Low growth height native plants.
113. MAINTENANCE - Cost effective/low maintenance treatments?
114. MAINTENANCE - How does Maintenance go about getting a project started and who has to fund it?
115. MAINTENANCE - Maintenance activities required for success?
116. MAINTENANCE - Maintenance requirements for native grasses?
117. MAINTENANCE - Species that require the most care to succeed?
118. MAINTENANCE - What is the mow height and frequency for native grasses?
119. MAINTENANCE - What it would take to make natives survive in CT right of way under normal maintenance conditions?
120. MAINTENANCE - What kind of management is required after the project is established?
121. MAINTENANCE - What would it take to make natives survive in CT R/W under normal maintenance conditions?
122. MAINTENANCE -How CT Maintenance might change their practices to allow a higher survival rate for natives?
123. MANAGEMENT - Long term management?-success of native grasses without fire or mowing?
124. METHODS - San Bernardino mountains and foothills species revegetation--methods, species mixes, seeding, soil specifications, etc.?
125. MIXES - Is there a key to help us determine what mix to use where?
126. MIXES - Low growing mixes for roadside to reduce maintenance/safety concerns?
127. MIXES - Mixes for dry, exposed hillsides?
128. MIXES - Mixes for grassy swales?
129. MIXES - What are some native grass mixes that work and where best to use them?
130. MIXES - What grasses mixes work best when no irrigation is planned?
131. MONITORING - Monitoring methods?
132. MONITORING - Monitoring?
133. MOWING - Can we manage our roadside vegetation with less than three mowing passes?
134. MOWING - Can we manage the roadsides to keep or encourage the wildflowers and native grasses?
135. MOWING - Is there a way to manage our roadside vegetation by modifying our mowing timing or mower height?
136. MYCHORIZAE - Does it really make a difference to use mychorizae inoculant with non irrigated hydroseed mixtures?
137. MYCHORIZAE - Does it really make a difference to use mychorizae inoculant with non-irrigated hydroseed mixtures?

138. MYCHORIZAE - When/when not to use MYCHORIZAE?
139. MYCORHIZAE - How to specify particular mycorrhizae for specific native species.
140. MYCORHIZAE - Is Mycorhizal inoculation of natives necessary?
141. MYCORHIZAE - Is mycorrhizae inoculation worth the added expense?
142. MYCORHIZAE - Mycorhizal fungi - how to encourage it?
143. MYCORHIZAE - Soil mycorrhizae?
144. MYCORHIZAE - Use of mychorizae inoculant with non irrigated natives?
145. NATIVE AMERICA INVOLVEMENT - Can we coordinate with Native American consultant to plant resource species (e.g. basketry materials)?
146. NATIVE AMERICAN UTILIZATION - Will certain species cause safety issues by encouraging roadside collecting in inappropriate locales?
147. NATURAL RESEEDING - Discussion about natural re-seeding process and how to give it a jump-start or ensure success?
148. NUMBER OF SPECIES - How do you determine how many species of natives should be used at a site?
149. OAKS - Acorn planting tips?
150. PERENNIALS - Perennial vs. annual?
151. PERENNIALS - Perennials vs. annuals?
152. PLANT INSITU LOCATIONS - Identification of locations for various natives?
153. PLANTING SEASON - Optimum planting seasons?
154. PREP - What kind of preparation needs to be done for non-irrigated plantings?
155. PREP. - Site preparation for native plants.
156. PREP. - Site preparation/weed control-adequately addressing compaction and stabilization?
157. PROPAGATION - Successful propagation?
158. QUANTITIES - Obtaining timely and sufficient quantities for freeway construction?
159. RELICT NATIVES - Are there methods to determine which native species formerly grew in now abandoned farmland?
160. REPLACING EXOTIC ORNAMENTALS - How could natives be used to replace Eucalyptus and Oleander?
161. RESEEDING - Self-reseeding natives?
162. SCARIFICATION - Should we be specifying scarification of some native seed species and how do we tell our contractor to do the procedure.
163. SEED - Pure live seed vs. bulk seed?
164. SEED - Seed selection and availability?
165. SEED - What is the best way to specify native seed. Purity, Germ, PLS ?
166. SEED AVAILABLE - Availability of seeds?
167. SEED ISSUES - Pure live seed vs. bulk seed?
168. SEED MIXES - What are the criteria for seed mixtures?
169. SEED SOURCE - Seed source purity
170. SEED TRANSFER ZONES - Thoughts on seed transfer guidelines for natives How far should we move seed (forbs and shrubs)?
171. SEED TREATMENT - Successful scarification of lupine and other seeds?
172. SEEDING - Discussion of seeding methods, quantities to use?
173. SEEDING - Drill seeding vs broadcasting?
174. SEEDING - For roadside revegetation, how many seeds per square foot should one calculate?
175. SEEDING - Success rate of natives when planted as seed?
176. SEEDING - With direct seeding, is there any way to get better than 1/2 of 1% survival if you don't irrigate?
177. SEEDING RATE - For erosion control, how many seeds per sq. ft. should be used.
178. SEEDING RATE - How do we determine viable and appropriate density/distribution?
179. SEEDING RATES - Application rates of various seeds?
180. SEEDING RATES - Optimal seed application rates?
181. SERPENTINE SEED SOURCES - Do we need to collect native seeds from plants growing on serpentine soils when we try to revegetate serpentine roadcuts and slides?
182. SERPENTINE SEED SOURCES - Is a native plant growing on serpentine genetically different than the same species of native growing nearby on another soil type?
183. SERPENTINE SOILS - Serpentine cut seed mixes?
184. SHRUBS - The use of water resistant shrubs along our ROW: species, etc.?
185. SHRUBS - What native shrubs work best in plantings and in what habitats do they work best?
186. SOIL - Soil evaluation/amendments?
187. SOIL - Soil requirements/duff?
188. SOURCES - Selecting appropriate native sources (Closest genetic source/ecotype possible)? (see>>common garden study)
189. SOURCES COMMERCIAL - We usually use Pacific Coast Seed.
190. SPECIES CHOICE - How to choose the specific natives for a site?
191. SPECIES LIST - Appropriate grass/wildflower mixes for the Bay Area ?
192. SPECIES LIST - Best native grass species selection for mitigation sites?
193. SPECIES LIST - Determining appropriate species for project site; type of species and source of material?
194. SPECIES LIST - Fast growing native varieties for various seasons?
195. SPECIES LIST - List of species for use in our district?
196. SPECIES LIST - Natives most suitable for use in CT right of way?
197. SPECIES LIST - Natives suitable for urban landscaping, like around Los Angeles?
198. SPECIES LIST - Plant list selection criteria.
199. SPECIES LIST - Species selection for mitigation sites within coastal areas within the fog zone?
200. SPECIES LIST - Species selection for mitigation sites within transitional area between riparian/wetland and upland?
201. SPECIES LIST - Species selection?
202. SPECIES LIST - What type of native can be used for slope protect on semi rocky soils?
203. SPECIES LIST - What type of tree and shrubs should be used for mitigation in unlandscaped areas?
204. SPECIES LIST -Suggestions for successful native grasses for reveg efforts?
205. SPECIES LIST -Suggestions of drought resistant natives in southern California?
206. STERILE CEREALS - Sterile cereal grain seed mix vs. non-sterile natives?
207. STORMWATER POLLUTION CONTROL - Are there natives that could be used for stormwater pollution control?
208. STRAW MULCH - Wheat/barley straw vs native grass straw?
209. SUCCESS - Methods and practices to increase/ensure chances of revegetation success in a desert environment, especially when no irrigation is used?
210. SUCCESS - Requirements for successful growth?
211. SUCCESSES - Examples of success/failure (and why?)?
212. SUCCESSES - S. California examples of success/failure (and why?)
213. SUCCESSFUL NATIVES - Highly successful species?
214. SUCCESSFUL NATIVES - Natives most suitable for use in CT R/W?
215. SUCCESSFUL SPECIES - Species recommendations in relation to present conditions?
216. TACIFIER - Use of tacifier vs mulch? -- Advantages/ disadvantages?
217. TREES - Especially what NATIVE TREES can we use?
218. WEEDINESS - Species invasiveness?
219. WEEDS - Are there natives that could help control weeds along roadsides?
220. WEEDS - Can native plants on roadsides choke-out invasive weeds?
221. WEEDS - How do natives compete in an area surrounded by noxious weeds?
222. WEEDS - If native communities are being invaded by roadside noxious weeds, what steps can be taken?
223. WEEDS - Noxious / invasive weed reduction (star thistle, Bermuda grass, etc.)?
224. WEEDS - To out-compete noxious weeds, should sowing rates of desirable natives be adjusted?
225. WEEDY LOOK.-How do you avoid that "weedy look" with natives?
226. WHY - Why use native vegetation?
227. WILDFLOWER - How do you create a self-perpetuating wildflower field?
228. WILDLIFE - Should right of way function as wildlife habitat?