CRAIG'S JUICY NATIVE GRASS GOSSIP & Research
No. 1 - Summer, 1995 - Native Grass Genetics


Edited and published by Craig Dremann of The Reveg Edge (sm).
P.O. Box 361, Redwood City, Cal. 94064. Phone (650) 325-7333 or e-mail
The URL of this issue is: http://www.ecoseeds.com/juicy.gossip.six.html

If you would like to read the previous and more recent issues about native grasses : Index at http://www.ecoseeds.com/juicy.html

URL of this page is http://www.ecoseeds.com/juicy.gossip.one.html

...Also, check out the Dr. G. Ledyard Stebbins web page at:

http://www.ecoseeds.com/stebbins.html


IN THIS ISSUE:

1994 CROP HARVESTS & 1995 FORECASTS

ECOTYPE SEED PRICES

CAITLIN & DAVE'S
LUPINUS LATIFOLIUS SEED ZONE STUDY, MT. HOOD NF, 1994-1998.


CALTRANS ROADSIDE VEGETATION MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE AND PUBLIC ADVISORY LIAISONS,

GENETICS:

CRAIG'S 1994 NATIVE GRASS GELS.

CRAIG'S 1995 NATIVE GRASS GELS

LAURIE & KEVIN'S ECOTYPICAL VARIATION IN BROMUS CARINATUS

NATURE CONSERVANCY'S STIPA/NASSELLA PULCHRA ISOZYME & COMMON GARDEN AT UC DAVIS.

VICKY'S OREGON & WASHINGTON ELYMUS GLAUCUS ISOZYME STUDY

WAYNE'S WEST COAST ELYMUS GLAUCUS ISOZYME STUDY '94


1994 CROP HARVESTS & 1995 FORECASTS

Dry weather in spring 1994 throughout the West caused many wild populations of native grasses to not set seed, or seed quality was very poor. Our survey in 1994 showed:

Idaho, Nevada, E. Ore., and the California portion of the Great Basin, there was no crop for Great Basin Wild Rye (Elymus cinereus). except in moist valley floors. Idaho, E. Ore., and probably elsewhere in the Great Basin, no crop to poor crops of Agropyron spicatum, Festuca idahoensis and Poa scabrella.

Coast ranges and Sierran/Cascade populations produced good quality seed of Bromus carinatus, Bromus orcuttianus, Bromus vulgaris, Deschampsia caespitosa, Deschampsia elongata, Elymus glaucus, Festuca californica, Festuca idahoensis, Festuca occidentalis, Hordeum brachyantherum, Sitanion, Stipa lemmonii, Stipa pulchra, and Stipa stillmanii.
1995 forecast is for bumper-crop yields of all grass species in the Western states due to above average rainfall. However, expect poor to no harvest from Festuca californica and Agropyron spicatum, which decided to grow more leaves and not set seed during this very wet year.

ECOTYPE SEED PRICES

How expensive are commercially reproduced ecotypes? The following are prices you could expect to pay to have your own ecotypes of native grass seed commercially reproduced. If you compare these prices with generic seed of unknown origin or of cultivars you will see that it is becoming economical to have your own ecotypes commercially reproduced.

Most of these prices are from the first year's seed harvest, unless they are marked with an asterisk (*) which means they are second year harvests. The second year harvest can produce anywhere from three to sixteen times the quantity of the first year, so it is more economical to keep fields in production for at least two years.

The data below is from USFS R-5 collections field-tested for yields and production in Oregon.
Each ecotype produces different quantities of seed with the low elevation populations producing more and subalpine populations the least. Each price represents a different ecotype that was test grown, prices per pound:

Agrostis idahoensis .....$9
Bromus carinatus ........
$3, 10
Bromus orcuttianus.......
$9*, 10, 15
Deschampsia elongata ....
$10*, 28, 30
Elymus glaucus ..........
$8,* $9,* 12, 13, 13, 14, 18, 23, 25, 28
Glyceria elata ..........
$8*
Hordeum brachyan.........
$18
Melica aristata .........
$35, 46
Poa scabrella ...........
$15
Sitanion hystrix ........
$17
Stipa columbiana ........
$46
Stipa comata ............
$75
Stipa coronata ..........
$120
Stipa lemmonii ..........
$4*, 67
Stipa thurberiana .......
$67

GENETICS

CAITLIN & DAVE'S LUPINUS LATIFOLIUS SEED ZONE STUDY, MT. HOOD NF, 1994-1998.

Study plan: Caitlin Cray, Botanist Mt. Hood NF (503) 467-2291 and Dave Doede, geneticist (509) 395-3389.

Partners assisting with study: Oregon Native Plant Society (state & mid-Columbia chapters), BLM Prineville, NRCS (SCS) Corvallis Plant Materials Center, Columbia Gorge Nat. Scenic Area, Mt. Hood NF (Engineering, Hydrology, Silviculture, and Wildlife/Botany).

Purpose: Create transfer guidelines and estimate genetic diversity parameters before commercial reproduction or seeding is done. Once non-local genetic material has been introduced into populations, estimates of genetic diversity and predictions of seed transfer effects will be clouded or biased by the non-local material. In addition to seed zones, the study will also look for traits or genetic variation which may be important for erosion control and site enhancement and knowledge about plant growth and establishment.

Samples: 1994, 50 populations of broadleaf lupine (L. latifolius) were collected from the eastside of Mt. Hood NF, with populations separated by at least 0.25 miles. 40 populations, six individuals were sampled per population; in 10 populations, 35 individuals were sampled. In 1995, 60 additional populations will be sampled from both the east and west side of Mt. Hood and adjacent public lands (BLM, Columbia Gorge NSA). 14 populations of two other lupines L. polyphyllus and L. caudatus will also be sampled to see if hybridization occurs between these species and the boradleaf lupine. Fall, 1995, a common garden will be planted at the NRCS (SCS) Plant Materials Center, Corvallis to distinguish different ecotypes, and plots will be maintained for three years. Lab testing using RAPD or isozyme tests will be conducted on all three species in autumn 1995.


CALTRANS ROADSIDE VEGETATION MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE AND PUBLIC ADVISORY LIAISONS, 1994-1996 PROGRAM.

Organized by Contract No. 56U403 ,
Ralph L. Carhart, Maintenance Program, Roadside Maintenance, Box 942874, Sacramento, Cal. 95814 (916) 654-2926

Purpose: October 1992 Caltrans (Calif. Dept. of Transportation) adopted an integrated vegetation management program for roadsides of the California highway system. The program is aimed at diversifying methods of vegetation control and gradually reducing the amount of herbicides used statewide.

Goals: Task l, 15 meetings, costing $24,000// Task 2, assemble Public Advisory Liaisons, costing $35,000//
Task 3, prepare a draft mitigation checklist, costing $15,000// Task 4, identify, select, describe, organize, prioritize and present potential alternative concepts, designs, and/or treatments for road edges and/or roadsides that may be effective in preventing fire starts, maintaining the visibility of safety devices (e.g. markers, guardrails, signs) and maintaining sight lines at ramps, intersections and road curves, while reducing the need to spray, mow, or perform other repetitive tasks for the control of undesired vegetation. Costing $110,000// Task 5, develop a database of environmentally sensitive resources which might be adversely affected by vegetation management activities. Costing $51,000.


CRAIG'S 1994 NATIVE GRASS GELS.

Organized by Craig Dremann, The Reveg Edge (650) 325-7333

Participation by: BLM Corvallis, BLM Eugene, BLM Susanville, Eldorado NF, Klamath NF, Mendocino NF, Mt. Hood NF, Plumas NF, Rogue River NF, Six Rivers NF, Umpqua NF.

Purpose: Isoelectric focusing gels were run from proteins extracted directly the seeds of178 populations of various native grass species and ecotypes, using esterase.

Samples:

Agropyron spicatum (9)
Bromus carinatus (8)
Bromus marginatus (1)
Bromus orcuttianus (4)
Bromus suksdorfii (1)
Bromus vulgaris (6)
Bromus sp. (1)
Calamagrostis canadensis (1)
Cinna latifolia (1)
Danthonia californica (3)
Danthonia intermedia (1)
Danthonia sp. (2)
Deschampsia caespitosa (2)
Deschampsia elongata (3)
Deschampsia sp. (1)
Elymus cinereus (7)
Elymus glaucus (40)
Elymus glaucus jepsonii (2)
Elymus ergot (1)
Festuca californica (1)
Festuca idahoensis (6)
Festuca subulata (1)
Festuca sp. (2)
Glyceria elata (4)
Hordeum brachy. (3)
Melica aristata (4)
Mulhenbergia filiformis (1)
Oryzopsis hymenoides (3)
Phleum alpinum (1)
Poa interior (1)
Poa pratensis (1)
Poa scabrella/ secunda (8)
Poa sp. (2)
Sitanion hystrix (7)
Sitanion sp. (4)
Sporobolus airoides (2)
Stipa californica (1)
Stipa columbiana (1)
Stipa comata (5)
Stipa lemmonii (6)
Stipa lettermanii (3)
Stipa occidentalis (2)
Stipa speciosa (1)
Stipa stillmanii (3)
Stipa thurberiana (4)
Stipa sp. (2)
Trisetum spicatum (1)
Vulpia microstachys (1)


Results: Gel patterns used to determine or confirm species identification, observe genetic diversity over a geographic area, or to "fingerprint" populations so they can be identified going into and coming out of commercial cultivation. This is a very inexpensive genetic check for native grasses----only averaging about $20 per population.


CRAIG'S 1995 NATIVE GRASS GELS

Organized by Craig Dremann, The Reveg Edge (650) 325-7333

Participation by: BLM Roseburg, BLM Susanville, Cleveland NF, Deschutes NF, DNR Washington, Eldorado NF, Klamath NF, Lassen NF, Lava Beds NM, Lewis & Clark NF, Los padres NF, Mendocino NF, Modoc NF, Mt. Baker-Snoqual. NF, Nez Perce NF, Olympia NF, Plumas NF, Shasta-Trinity NF, Sierra NF, Siskiyou NF, Tahoe NF, Umpqua NF, and Willamette NF.

Purpose: Same as 1994 Native grass gels, except this run we have added 16 named cultivars of Bromus, Festuca, etc. to "fingerprint" and compare with wild populations. 310 populations total.
Isoelectric focusing gels were run from proteins extracted directly from the seeds of native grass, using esterase.

Samples:

Agropyron caninum (1)
Agropyron spicatum (19)
Bromus arizonicus (1)
Bromus carinatus (34)
Bromus marginatus ( 3)
Bromus orcuttianus (5)
Bromus suksdorfii (1)
Bromus vulgaris (8)
Bromus sp. (2)
Calamagrostis canadensis (8)
Danthonia californica (5)
Danthonia unispicata (1)
Deschampsia atropurpurea (10)
Deschampsia caespitosa (11)
Deschampsia elongata (8)
Deschampsia sp. (1)
Elymus cinereus (13)
Elymus glaucus (53)
Elymus glaucus jepsonii (4)
Festuca californica (9)
Festuca idahoensis (20)
Festuca occidentalis (6)
Festuca ovina (3)
Festuca rubra (3)
Festuca viridula (1)
Festuca sp. (3)
Glyceria elata (1)
Hordeum brachyantherum (4)
Koeleria cristata (1)
Koeleria macrantha (1)
Melica aristata (8)
Melica californica (1)
Melica imperfecta (1)
Mulhenbergia rigens (1)
Poa scrabrella/secunda (16)
Sitanion sp. (14)
Stipa californica (1)
Stipa lepida (1)
Stipa lemmonii (10)
Stipa lettermanii (1)
Stipa occidentalis (1)
Stipa pulchra (8)
Stipa stillmanii (9)
Stipa thurberiana (3)
Stipa sp. (3)


LAURIE & KEVIN'S ECOTYPICAL VARIATION IN BROMUS CARINATUS

Report: "Ecotypic Variation in California Brome (Bromus carinatus)," presented and abstract from the November 1994 meeting of the California Native Grass Assoc.

Research by: Laurie J. Flowers and Kevin J. Rice, Dept. of Agronomy & Range Science, University of California, Davis.

Purpose: Examine ecotypic variations in California brome using field reciprocal seed transplants along an elevational gradient from the coast to the subalpine zone at 3050 m. (9000 ft.).

Selected results: Survivorship of the native grass plants were compared. Plants grown from a Placerville ecotype was compared with a coastal population and a subalpine population.. After two years in the ground at Placerville, 33% of the local population had survived, contrasting with none of the coastal population and only 8.5% of the subalpine population.

NATURE CONSERVANCY'S STIPA/NASSELLA PULCHRA
ISOZYME & COMMON GARDEN AT UC DAVIS.


Report: Genetic Architecture of Purple Needlegrass: Implications for Restoration.

Research by: Eric E. Knapp, Dept. of Agronomy & Range Science, University of California, Davis.

Funded by: Nature Conservancy, California.

Purpose: To investigate genetically based variation for proteins (allozymes) as well as morphological and phenological traits (plant height, leaf width, heading date, etc.) in eight naturally occurring populations of purple needlegrass (Nassella pulchra), as well as two commercially available seed sources, in order to develop some preliminary guidelines for the transfer and use of seed of this species in restoration projects.

Sampled: Seed from 60 individuals from eight Nature Conservancy preserves in California.

Iso- methods: 19 allozyme loci's variations quantitified for each population using starch gel electophoresis of extract from whole seedlings.

Common garden: Plants were grown from this seed and planted in a replicated common garden at Davis, and morphological and phenological traits were measured in the spring of 1994.

Selected results: All populations were genetically distinct from each other. The greater the geographic distance, generally, the greater the degree of allozyme divergence. Statistically significant differences were found among populations for all twelve morphological and phenological traits measured. Population differentiation for those traits was less from north to south than from west to east.
VICKY'S OREGON & WASHINGTON ELYMUS GLAUCUS STUDY

Study Plan by Vicky Erickson, geneticist, Umatilla NF, DG R06F14A, phone (503) 278-3715.

Plants grown and data collected by Natural Resource Conservation Service (formerly SCS), Pullman, Washington. Data analysis by Robert K. Campbell and Frank C. Sorensen, geneticists, USFS PNW Research Station, Corvallis, OR.

Purpose: To develop provisional seed movement guidelines for Elymus glaucus and to make recommendations for controlling transfer risk.

Samples: 189 populations (!) from the Blue and Wallowa Mountains of Oregon and Washington, plus 11 populations from the Wenatchee NF. Seed was collected from at least six individuals per population separated by a minimum of 15 feet, but representing the same habitat and environmental conditions.

WAYNE'S WEST COAST ELYMUS GLAUCUS ISOZYME STUDY '94

Report by UCD-Eric Knapp/Kevin Rice, and copies circulated by USFS Rogue River NF, Wayne Rolle, Forest Botanist, DG R06F10A (503) 858-2274.

Funded by: Rogue River NF, The Nature Conservancy, and BLM.

Purpose: To determine the genetic structure of Elymus Glaucus populations from a broad geographic scale using allozyme markers, 8 stains (systems), 20 loci.

Samples: 20 pops. across CA, OR, and WA, 50 plants per pop., 15 ft. minimum spacing between plants.

Selected results: Elymus glaucus is highly self-pollinating species which restricts gene flow. Genetic differences were greater in an east-west directions than in a north-south perhaps due to coast vs inland climatic trends and mountain to valley impediment to gene flow. High potential for local adaptation.


THE REVEG EDGE (sm) SERVICES:
Craig Dremann (650) 325-7333. Box 361, Redwood City, Ca. 94064


Updated April 4, 2016. Back to Craig Dremann's main Contents page.