DELAWARE DOT NATIVE PLANT TEST-PLOTS 2/2000

Contacts:

---Susan Barton, Dept. of Plant & Soil Sciences, Univ. of Delaware, Townsend Hall, Newark, Delaware 19717 - Email: sbarton@udel.edu - Phone (302) 831-1375

---Gary Schwetz, Delaware Center for Horticulture, 1810 N. Dupont St., Wilmington, DE 19806 Email: gschweyz@dehort.org - Phone (302) 658-6262

---William F. Smith III, Delaware Dept. of Transportation, P.O. Box 778, Dover, DE 19903 - Email: WSmith@mail.dot.state.de.us - Phone (302) 760-2181

Native Plants for Roadsides workshop, Wilmington, Delaware.



Herbaceous plants, planted out from plugs - 35 species

Amsonia hubrichtii ...............Plot 3
Asclepias incarnata ..............Plot 2, 5, 8
Asclepias tuberosa ...............Plot 3, 6
Aster novae-angliae ..............Plot 2, 6
Aster novae-belgii ...............Plot 2
Aster puniceus ...................Plot 2
Baptisia australis ...............Plot 3
Echinacea purpurea ...............Plot 6
Eupatorium colestinum ............Plot 2
Eupatorium fistulosum ............Plot 2, 5, 10
Eupatorium hyssopifolium .........Plot 3, 6
Helianthus angustifolius .........Plot 2
Hibiscus moscheutos ..............Plot 2, 8
Liatris spicata ..................Plot 3
Lobelia siphilitica ..............Plot 2
Oenothera fruiticosa Fyrverkeri ..Plot 3
Panicum virgatum .................Plot 5, 10, 22
Penstemon digitalis ..............Plot 3
Phlox carolina Miss Lingard ......Plot 3
Phlox paniculata .................Plot 3
Phlox pilosa Eco Happy Trails ....Plot 3
Pycnanthemum virginianum .........Plot 2
Schizachyrium scoparium ..........Plot 3, 6
Silphium laciniatum ..............Plot 3
Solidago nemoralis ...............Plot 5
Solidago rugosa Fireworks ........Plot 3, 22
Solidago rugosa ..................Plot 5
Solidago sp. .....................Plot 6
Solidago speciosa ................Plot 3
Sorghastrum nutans ...............Plot 10
Sorghastrum nutans Sioux Blue ....Plot 1, 3
Sporobolus heterolepis ...........Plot 3
Verbena hastata ..................Plot 2
Vernonia glauca ..................Plot 2, 3
Vernonia noveboracensis ..........Plot 1


Herbaceous from seed - 66 species

Amsonia hubrichtii ........Plot 3, 11
Andropogon spp. ...........Plot 16
Andropogon ternarius ......Plot 11
Andropogon virginicus .....Plot 2, 3, 6, 7
Asclepias incarnata .......Plot 2, 8
Asclepias tuberosa ........Plot 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 15, 17, 18, 21
Aster divaricatus .........Plot 7
Aster laevis ..............Plot 1, 3, 11
Aster lateriflorus ........Plot 3, 6, 11
Aster novae-angliae .......Plot 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 17, 18
Aster novae-belgii ........Plot 2, 8
Aster pilosus .............Plot 1, 3, 11, 15, 17, 18
Aster puniceus ............Plot 2, 8
Baptisia australis ........Plot 1, 2, 3, 8, 11
Baptisia lanceolata .......Plot 6
Bidens polylepis ..........Plot 2, 8
Bromus latiglumus .........Plot 6
Carex stricta .............Plot 2, 8
Chysanthemum leucanthemun .Plot 6
Coreopsis lanceolata ......Plot 3, 6, 11
Echinacea pallida .........Plot 6
Echinacea purpurea ........Plot 1, 3, 6, 11
Elymus hystrix ............Plot 6
Eragrostis spectabilis, ...Plot 2, 3, 6, 7, 11
Eryngium yuccifolium ......Plot 6
Eupatorium capillifolium ..Plot 16
Eupatorium coelestinum ....Plot 2, 8
Eupatorium fistulosum .....Plot 2, 8
Eupatorium hyssopifolium ..Plot 1, 2, 6, 7, 11, 16, 17, 18
Eupatorium perfoliatum ....Plot 2, 8
Festuca ovina v.dur. ......Plot 6
Festuca ovina .............Plot 6
Festuca rubra .............Plot 6
Gnaphalium obtusifolium ...Plot 16
Heleopsis helianthoides ...Plot 6
Helianthus annuus .........Plot 6
Hibiscus moscheutos .......Plot 2, 8
Juncus effusus ............Plot 2, 8
Liatris spicata ...........Plot 1, 3, 6, 7, 11
Lobelia cardinalis ........Plot 2, 8
Lobelia siphilitica .......Plot 2, 8
Lolium multiforum .........Plot 6
Monarda fistulosa .........Plot 6
Oenothera speciosa ........Plot 3, 11
Oenothera tetragona .......Plot 2, 3, 8, 11
Panicum virgatum ..........Plot 2, 7, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21
Penstemon digitalis .......Plot 1, 3, 6, 11
Phlox paniculata ..........Plot 3
Ratibida pinnata ..........Plot 6
Rudbeckia hirta ...........Plot 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 15, 17, 18, 21
Schizachyrium scoparium ...Plot 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 16
Scirpus cyperinus .........Plot 2, 8
Senecio spp. ..............Plot 6
Silphium laciniatum .......Plot 3
Solidago altissima ........Plot 6
Solidago graminifolia .....Plot 6
Solidago nemoralis ........Plot 2, 3, 6, 7, 11
Solidago rugosa ...........Plot 1, 2, 15, 17, 18
Solidago sempervirens .....Plot 16
Solidago speciosa .........Plot 3, 6, 11
Solidago tenuifolium ......Plot 16
Sorghastrum nutans ........Plot 1, 2, 3, 6, 15, 17, 18, 21
Sporobolus heterolepis ....Plot 3, 6, 11
Verbena hastata ...........Plot 2, 8
Vernonia noveboracensis ...Plot 1, 2, 3, 8
Veronica fasciculata ......Plot 6



Woody species - 28 tested

Acer rubrum..................Juniperus virginiana
Alnus serrulata..............Leucothoe racemosa
Amelanchier canadensis.......Liquidambar styraciflua
Aronia arbutifolia...........Magnolia virginiana
Baccharis halimifolia........Myrica pennsylvanica
Betula nigra.................Nyssa sylvatica
Cephalanthus occidentalis....Prunus maritima
Cercis canadensis............Quercus imbricaria
Chionanthus virginica........Rhus glabra
Clethra alnifolia............Rhus typhina
Cornus florida...............Sassafras albidum
Cornus sericea...............Vaccinium corymbosum
Crataegus Winter King........Viburnum dentatum
Ilex opaca...................Viburnum prunifolium


DELAWARE DOT - JAN 2000 TEST-PLOT LOCATIONS

PLOT 1 -
Location: I-95 southbound, Newark/Middletown exit 1 mile. Size: 35 x 320 ft. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain, part slope, SSE exposure Existing conditions: The woody background of existing vegetation includes many desirable native species such as sweetgum, sumac and red maple.

PLOT 2

Location: I-95 southbound, median area near 141. Size: 200 x 75. Environment: full sun, dry/wet, coastal plain Existing conditions: A large alcove of mowed grass is surrounded by a wood edge on one side and a mass of cattails on the other side. A weeping willow and large expanse of un-mowed grass provide a pastoral background.

PLOT 3A Location: I-95 southbound, Exit 1B, 896 Size: 120 x 225 ft. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain, gentle slope. Existing conditions: Mowed turf in a large, open cloverleaf. Existing vegetation: mixed perennials and grasses.

PLOT 3B Location: I-95 southbound, Exit 1A, 896 Size: 120 x 225 ft. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain Existing conditions: Mowed turf in a large, open cloverleaf.

PLOT 5 Location: I-95 northbound, Exit to east 295, triangular plot Size: 1200 Feet in Length - /From Overhead road sign on Highway above planting site to 1 Red Maple From Overhead sign to Guardrail = 88; From Guardrail to start of Sumac = 65 (153 total) Sumac to Start of Baccharis = 376 (529 total) Baccharis to road sign = 338 (867 total) Road sign to Red Maple = 333 (1200 Total) Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain, significant slope,;3:1, SSE exposure Existing conditions: This triangular, sloped plot has a showy population of Baccharis halmifolia and Rhus copallina that form dense thickets in some areas. Other portions of the slope are more open. Some invasive weed species exist in open pockets.

PLOT 6a Location: Wilmington I-95 corridor: 4th Street to 6th Street between Adams St. & I-95. Size: 840 X 120 ft. Environment: Full sun, dry, piedmont, flat to greater than 3:1 slope, ENE exposure Existing conditions: Filled slope to create I-95 roadbed, mixed woody and herbaceous plants, mostly undesirable, including crown vetch on the north end.

PLOT 6b
Location: Wilmington I-95 corridor: 8th Street to 9th Street between Adams St. & I-95. Size: 840 X 90 ft. Environment: Full sun, dry, piedmont, flat to greater than 3:1 slope, NWN exposure Existing conditions: Cut slope to create I-95, exposed bedrock, grove of black locust below the exit ramp.

PLOT 6c Location: Wilmington I-95 corridor: 8th Street to 9th Street between Jackson St. & I-95. Size: 840 X 90 ft. Environment: Full sun, dry, piedmont, flat to greater than 3:1 slope, ENE exposure. Existing conditions: Filled slope to create I-95 roadbed, mixed woody and herbaceous plants, mostly undesirable, including crown vegetation on the north end .

PLOT 7 Location: Bala Road and Rt. 273 intersection. Size: 60 meters on 273, 30 meters on Bala road. Environment: full sun, partial shade, dry, moist, piedmont, gentle slope to 3:1, NNE and WNW exposure. Existing conditions: A rich flora exists in a remnant woods adjacent to this site.

PLOT 8 Location: I-95 southbound, exit 5A to 141. Size: 233 x 62 ft. Environment: full sun, wet, coastal plain. Existing conditions: The center of this plot is very wet. Standing water is present during most of the season. pH ranges from 4.5 to 5.7. Soluble salts range from 0.57 to 2.18. Nutrients are very low and an area adjacent to a drainpipe is completely barren. Organic matter ranges from 2.5 to 4.5. The soil is classified as a sandy loam.

PLOT 9
Location: Ramp from 273 to I-95 (southbound). Size: 40 x 400 ft. Environment: full sun, wet, coastal plain, gentle slope. Existing conditions: The ditch line at the back of the plot contains a variety of desirable native species.

PLOT 10
Location: Iron Hill, northbound I95, exit to 896. Size: 835 feet. Environment: full sun, dry, piedmont,; 3:1 slope, NNE exposure. Existing conditions: Large masses of trees and grasses exist on this hillside site. In between groves of trees there are clumps of desirable warm season grasses and clumps of invasive weeds (multiflora rose, honeysuckle and crown vetch).

PLOT 11
Location: Southbound 113, north of buckle up sign. Size: 205 x 40 ft. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain, gentle slope. Existing conditions: A border of desirable native species surrounds the back of the alcove plot. The current vegetation is mowed turf. This area was used as a wildflower plot in the past.

PLOT 12
Location: Route 1, southbound, at measured mile sign , across from Tower Beach roadside: 334 x 35 ft. Environment: full sun, wet, coastal plain. Existing conditions: Herbicide treatments for Phragmites released a large mass of Hibiscus palustris that bloomed prolifically in 1998. Large, dead bayberry plants limit the aesthetics of this plot.

PLOT 13 Location: Route 1, northbound, opposite and north of Old Inlet Bait and Tackle Size: 297 x 56 ft. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain Existing conditions: This drainage ditch plot adjacent to a dune environment contains a variety of attractive native species. The shrubs next to the roadside were mowed in 1997.

PLOT 14 Location: Route 1, southbound, between gated access road and Old Inlet Bait and Tackle driveway. Size: 140 x 50 ft. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain. Existing conditions: Attractive native grasses and perennials dominate in this site.

PLOT 15 Location: Route 1, northbound, at Milford exit (Rt. 14 south Milford overpass). Size: 350 x 100 ft. (at midpoint). Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain, 3:1 slope, WSW exposure. Existing conditions: Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) punctuates this grassy site. Masses of sumac have developed between the junipers. The slope increases gradually to a greater than 3:1 slope by the overpass.

PLOT 16
Location: Median strip on Route 1 opposite Old Inlet Bait and Tackle Size: 900 x 20 ft. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain Existing conditions: Mowed turf in roadway median. Existing vegetation: Mowed grass

PLOT 17
Location: 495 and Route 13, Southbound Off Ramp Size: 32,680 sq. ft. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain. Existing conditions: Mowed turf, crown vetch, plantain.

PLOT 18
Location: 495 and Route 13 , Northbound at Rogers Road Overpass Size: 15,650 sq. ft. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain. Existing conditions: Mowed turf, plantain.

PLOT 19
Location: Southbound SR1, just past South Smyrna interchange at km post 113. Size: 300 x 15 yards sloping from shoulder, 10 yards backslope. Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain. Existing conditions: Unmowed turf mixture (Formula L low growing fescues) on slope from road. Backslope contains broom sedge and frost asters. A portion of this plot has a 3:1 slope and a portion is relatively flat. A small section of wet ditch exists with cattails and Juncus.

PLOT 20
Location: Southbound SR1, at km post 112.5 Size: 200 yd by 8 ft (planted section 100 x 8 ft). Environment: full sun, dry and wet, coastal plain, E of wood edge Existing conditions: Wooded edge with good populations of native trees and shrubs(Nyssa sylvatica, Ilex opaca, Sassafras albidum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Clethra alnifolia, Itea virginica, Leucothoe racemosa, Lyonia ligustrina. The site starts with a drainage ditch and slopes up slightly to the woods behind.

PLOT 21 Location: Southbound SR1, at km post 107.5 Size: 220 yards x 25 feet (20 yd each treatment)Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain. Existing conditions: Mowed turf.

PLOT 22
Location: Southbound SR 1, Grassy area in front of sweet gum field, km post 107 Size: Environment: full sun, dry, coastal plain. Existing conditions: Mowed turf.


East-Coast general plant habitats, according to Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown in "An Illustrated Flora of the Northern US and Canada" (1913):

Alpine summits.................Moist woods and meadows
Dry sand soil..................Roadsides
Dry soils......................Saline soil
Dry woods......................Sea shores
Fields.........................Swamps
Moist sandy soil...............Waste places (exotics)
Moist soils....................Woods and thickets


Information on this web site supplied by Gary Schwetz, Program Manager, Delaware Center for Horticulture, 1810 N. Dupont St., Wilmington, DE. 19806 Call (302) 658-6262 for more information.